A test that uses gold nanoparticles to detect early-stage prostate cancer costs less than $1, returns results in minutes and is more accurate than standard PSA screening, pilot studies show. The new technique leverages the ability of gold nanoparticles to attract cancer biomarkers.
The simple test developed by University of Central Florida scientist Qun “Treen” Huo holds the promise of earlier detection of one of the deadliest cancers among men. It would also reduce the number of unnecessary and invasive biopsies stemming from the less precise PSA test that’s now used.
“It’s fantastic,” said Dr. Inoel Rivera, a urologic oncologist at Florida Hospital Cancer Institute, which collaborated with Huo on the recent pilot studies. “It’s a simple test. It’s much better than the test we have right now, which is the PSA, and it’s cost-effective.”
When a cancerous tumor begins to develop, the body mobilizes to produce antibodies. Huo’s test detects that immune response using gold nanoparticles about 10,000 times smaller than a freckle.
When a few drops of blood serum from a finger prick are mixed with the gold nanoparticles, certain cancer biomarkers cling to the surface of the tiny particles, increasing their size and causing them to clump together.
Among researchers, gold nanoparticles are known for their extraordinary efficiency at absorbing and scattering light. Huo and her team at UCF’s NanoScience Technology Center developed a technique known as nanoparticle-enabled dynamic light scattering assay (NanoDLSay) to measure the size of the particles by analyzing the light they throw off. That size reveals whether a patient has prostate cancer and how advanced it may be.
And although it uses gold, the test is cheap. A small bottle of nanoparticles suspended in water costs about $250, and contains enough for about 2,500 tests.
“What’s different and unique about our technique is it’s a very simple process, and the material required for the test is less than $1,” Huo said. “And because it’s low-cost, we’re hoping most people can have this test in their doctor’s office. If we can catch this cancer in its early stages, the impact is going to be big.”
After lung cancer, prostate cancer is the second-leading killer cancer among men, with more than 240,000 new diagnoses and 28,000 deaths every year. The most commonly used screening tool is the PSA, but it produces so many false-positive results, leading to painful biopsies and extreme treatments, that one of its discoverers recently called it “hardly more effective than a coin toss.”
Pilot studies found Huo’s technique is significantly more exact. The test determines with 90 to 95 percent confidence that the result is not false-positive. When it comes to false-negatives, there is 50 percent confidence; not ideal, but still significantly higher than the PSA’s 20 percent and Huo is working to improve that number.
The results of the pilot studies were published recently in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. Huo is also scheduled to present her findings in June at the TechConnect World Innovation Summit & Expo in suburban Washington, D.C.
Huo’s team is pursuing more extensive clinical validation studies with Florida Hospital and others, including the VA Medical Center Orlando. She hopes to complete major clinical trials and see the test being used by physicians in two to three years.
Huo also is researching her technique’s effectiveness as a screening tool for other tumors.
“Potentially, we could have a universal screening test for cancer,” she said. “Our vision is to develop an array of blood tests for early detection and diagnosis of all major cancer types, and these blood tests are all based on the same technique and same procedure.”
Huo co-founded Nano Discovery Inc., a startup company headquartered in a UCF Business Incubator, to commercialize the new diagnostic test. The company manufacturers a test device specifically for medical research and diagnostic purposes.
Tissue Regeneration Materials Unit at MANA, NIMS successfully developed gold nanoparticles that have functional surfaces and act on osteogenic differentiation of stem cells.
Tissue Regeneration Materials Unit (Guoping Chen, Unit Director) at the International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA) (Masakazu Aono, Director General, MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS (Sukekatsu Ushioda, President)) successfully developed gold nanoparticles that have functional surfaces and act on osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. This research result had been published online version of journal Biomaterials on 6 April 2015 (Jasmine Jia’En Li, Naoki Kawazoe and Guoping Chen, Title: “Gold nanoparticles with different charge and moiety induce differential cell response on mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis,” 2015 Jun 6; 54: 226-36, doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.03.001)
In regenerative medicine, the technology to control stem cell functions such as differentiation and proliferation is indispensable. It has been reported that nanosized gold particles promote the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts. Also, other studies suggested that various functional groups such as amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups promote or inhibit stem cell differentiation. Based on these reports, we assumed that gold nanoparticles with surface modified with functional groups is a promising candidate to control stem cell functions. However, specific effects of such particles on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells was unknown.
We synthesized gold nanoparticles with surface modified with one of the following functional groups: a positively-charged amino group (-NH2), a negatively-charged carboxyl group (-COOH) or a neutral hydroxyl group (-OH), and identified how they affect the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells that were derived from human bone marrow. Among these three types of nanoparticles, those with the carboxyl groups were uptaken by cells and exhibited a strong bone differentiation-inhibitory effect compared to the other types of nanoparticles. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of gold nanoparticles with carboxyl groups on the gene expression profile of mesenchymal stem cell from human bone marrow. The results indicated that the nanoparticles inhibited several gene expressions related to osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, the influence of the gold nanoparticles on promoting or inhibiting osteogenic differentiation varied depending on the types of functional groups.
In view of regenerative medicine, it is essential to develop technology enabling controlling stem cell functions as well as safe and high-quality stem cells. In the present study, we attempted to control stem cell functions through material manipulation, and our findings will contribute to the creation of novel nanomaterials that facilitate the advancement of stem cell manipulation. We intend to build upon these results in our future endeavors in developing regenerative medicine.